Associated with the idea of objective values.
Sentiments, affections, value judgments can be true/false, correct/incorrect, correspond or fail to correspond with reality. No fact/value distinction. There are evaluative facts.
4 senses of "the Tao" in AM:
Lewis's target in chapter 1: the emotive theory of value: Values are merely projections of our feelings upon external things.
Lewis's argument against subjectivism: cannot explain the phenomenon of disagreements over value judgments. If value judgments are merely projections of one's feelings, what are we disagreeing about?
The subjectivists that Lewis considers (represented by "Gaius and Titius") believe that we should learn to see through appeals to emotion that masquerade as appeals to objective fact. Propaganda will then lose its power.
Lewis argues that this approach will produce "men without chests": humans with overdeveloped intellects and powerful appetites/drives, but no strong passions, sentiments.
It is impossible to achieve moral virtue under such conditions. The intellect requires well-trained sentiments as its ally.
On the objectivist view, education is a matter of initiation. Analogy: adult bird teaching the young bird to fly.
Helping the young to develop into the form of common human nature. A process of humanization.
On the subjectivist view, education is a matter of conditioning. Analogy: poultry keeper training the young bird to be manageable for the sake of productivity.
Distinction: propagation and propaganda.
Crucial case: teaching the child to be willing to sacrifice himself/herself for the sake of the community.
Is this a matter of shared submission to an objective order of value, or a matter of exploiting the child to serve the values of others?
Lewis argues that true ethical innovation (the creation of a new value) is impossible. All judgments of value derive from an apprehension of the Tao.
What can be created are new ideology.
An ideology is a system of value judgments that consists in taking some fragment of the Tao, making it the supreme or absolute value, and using it to oppose the remainder of the Tao.Lewis considers the scientific innovator, who argues that true (scientific/rational/biological) values are rooted directly in instinct, as opposed to false values, that depend on artificial sentiments, created by culture. We debunk the second class, and are left with only the first class.
This selective debunking is illegitimate. If all values are subjective, then this applies as much to "rational" and instinctive values as to any others.
If the values of chastity and patriotism go, so must the values of humanitarianism, progressive politics.
Specific arguments against the instinct theory of moral value:"We are morally obliged to serve humanity because we have an inborn instinct to do so."
Key claim: it is impossible for fundamental moral principles to be both (i) the criterion for one's decision, and (ii) up for grabs in that decision: i.e., to be one of the consequences of one's decision.
A moralizing Conditioner tries to have it both ways:
Francis Bacon: jettisons final causation, emphasizes control over nature, rather than respect for its integrity.
Lewis uses Buber's contrast:
Bacon: I/it relationship to nature
Aristotle: I/thou relationship to nature.